INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Apr 08, · Education serves several functions for society. These include (a) socialization, (b) social integration, (c) social placement, and (d) social and cultural innovation. Latent functions include child care, the establishment of peer relationships, and lowering unemployment by keeping high school students out of the full-time labor force. Conflict theory. Transmission of Culture. Education instill and transmit the social norms values and beliefs into the next generation. Social integration. Education unify the individuals in society and create the sense of solidarity among them. Career Selection. Education helps individual to think about.
The sociology of education is a diverse and vibrant subfield that features theory and research focused on how education as a social whaf is affected by and affects other social institutions and the social structure overall, and how various social forces shape the policies, practices, and outcomes of schooling. While education is typically viewed in most societies as a pathway to personal development, success, and social mobility, and as a cornerstone of democracy, sociologists who study education take a critical view of eduction assumptions to study how the institution actually operates within society.
They consider what other social functions education might have, like for example socialization into gender and class roles, and what other social outcomes contemporary educational edudation might produce, like reproducing class and racial hierarchies, among others. He believed that moral education was necessary for society to exist because it provided the basis for the social solidarity that held society together. By writing about education in this way, Durkheim established the functionalist perspective on education.
According to this view, the wnat function of education also serves to promote social control and to curb deviant behavior. The symbolic interaction approach to studying education focuses on interactions during the schooling process what are the functions of education in sociology the outcomes of those interactions.
For instance, interactions between students and teachers, and social forces that shape those interactions like race, class, and gender, create expectations on both parts. Teachers expect certain behaviors from certain students, and those expectations, when communicated to students through interaction, can actually produce those very behaviors.
Stemming from Marx's theory of the relationship between workers and capitalism, the conflict theory approach to education examines the way educational institutions and the hierarchy of degree levels contribute to the reproduction of hierarchies and inequalities in society. This approach recognizes that schooling reflects class, racial, and gender stratification, and tends to reproduce it.
Sociologists who work from this perspective also assert that educational institutions and school curricula are products of the dominant worldviews, beliefs, and values of the majority, which typically produces educational experiences that marginalize and disadvantage those in the minority in terms of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability, among other things.
By operating in this fashion, the educational institution is involved in the work of reproducing power, domination, oppression, and inequality within society. It is for this reason that there have long been campaigns across the U.
In fact, sociologists have found that providing ethnic studies courses to students of color who are on the brink of failing out or dropping out of high school effectively re-engages and inspires them, raises their overall grade point average and improves their academic performance overall.
Share Flipboard Email. By Ashley Crossman. Cite this Article Functins. Crossman, Ashley. The Sociology of Education. Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge. Definition of Systemic Racism in Sociology.
Functions of Schooling in Relation to Society Review work in sociology of education shows that the most important functions ascribed to education at the macro level are the following: social adjustment, preservation, reproduction of capitalism and class society, renewal or change, upward mobility, and social domination. Education serves several functions for society. These include (a) socialization, (b) social integration, (c) social placement, and (d) social and cultural innovation. Latent functions include child care, the establishment of peer relationships, and lowering unemployment by keeping high school students out of the full-time labor force. Sociological Functions Of Education Words4 Pages Education has many values to it as it is what prepares students to enter what is considered ‘the real world’. For instance, it is seen as what prepares people to function in society, help declare who is dominant in society, and give students the basis of social interaction.
Table Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children need to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism remember the Pledge of Allegiance? Regarding these last two values, American students from an early age compete as individuals over grades and other rewards.
A second function of education is social integration. For a society to work, functionalists say, people must subscribe to a common set of beliefs and values. As we saw, the development of such common views was a goal of the system of free, compulsory education that developed in the 19th century.
Thousands of immigrant children in the United States today are learning English, U. Such integration is a major goal of the English-only movement, whose advocates say that only English should be used to teach children whose native tongue is Spanish, Vietnamese, or whatever other language their parents speak at home.
A third function of education is social placement. Beginning in grade school, students are identified by teachers and other school officials either as bright and motivated or as less bright and even educationally challenged. Depending on how they are identified, children are taught at the level that is thought to suit them best. In this way they are prepared in the most appropriate way possible for their later station in life.
Whether this process works as well as it should is an important issue, and we explore it further when we discuss school tracking shortly.
Social and cultural innovation is a fourth function of education. Our scientists cannot make important scientific discoveries and our artists and thinkers cannot come up with great works of art, poetry, and prose unless they have first been educated in the many subjects they need to know for their chosen path. Schools ideally perform many important functions in modern society. These include socialization, social integration, social placement, and social and cultural innovation.
Education also involves several latent functions, functions that are by-products of going to school and receiving an education rather than a direct effect of the education itself. One of these is child care. Once a child starts kindergarten and then first grade, for several hours a day the child is taken care of for free.
The establishment of peer relationships is another latent function of schooling. Most of us met many of our friends while we were in school at whatever grade level, and some of those friendships endure the rest of our lives. A final latent function of education is that it keeps millions of high school students out of the full-time labor force. This fact keeps the unemployment rate lower than it would be if they were in the labor force.
Conflict theory does not dispute most of the functions just described. One example involves the function of social placement. As most schools track their students starting in grade school, the students thought by their teachers to be bright are placed in the faster tracks especially in reading and arithmetic , while the slower students are placed in the slower tracks; in high school, three common tracks are the college track, vocational track, and general track.
Such tracking does have its advantages; it helps ensure that bright students learn as much as their abilities allow them, and it helps ensure that slower students are not taught over their heads. But, conflict theorists say, tracking also helps perpetuate social inequality by locking students into faster and lower tracks.
The latter tend to lose self-esteem and begin to think they have little academic ability and thus do worse in school because they were tracked down. In this way, tracking is thought to be good for those tracked up and bad for those tracked down. Conflict theorists thus say that tracking perpetuates social inequality based on social class and race and ethnicity Ansalone, ; Oakes, Social inequality is also perpetuated through the widespread use of standardized tests. Critics say these tests continue to be culturally biased, as they include questions whose answers are most likely to be known by white, middle-class students, whose backgrounds have afforded them various experiences that help them answer the questions.
As we will see, schools in the United States also differ mightily in their resources, learning conditions, and other aspects, all of which affect how much students can learn in them. Simply put, schools are unequal, and their very inequality helps perpetuate inequality in the larger society.
Children going to the worst schools in urban areas face many more obstacles to their learning than those going to well-funded schools in suburban areas. Their lack of learning helps ensure they remain trapped in poverty and its related problems. Although no one plots this behind closed doors, our schoolchildren learn patriotic values and respect for authority from the books they read and from various classroom activities. Symbolic interactionist studies of education examine social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues.
These studies help us understand what happens in the schools themselves, but they also help us understand how what occurs in school is relevant for the larger society. When teachers think students are smart, they tend to spend more time with them, to call on them, and to praise them when they give the right answer. But when teachers think students are less bright, they tend to spend less time with them and act in a way that leads the students to learn less.
One of the first studies to find this example of a self-fulfilling prophecy was conducted by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson They tested a group of students at the beginning of the school year and told their teachers which students were bright and which were not. They tested the students again at the end of the school year; not surprisingly the bright students had learned more during the year than the less bright ones.
But it turned out that the researchers had randomly decided which students would be designated bright and less bright. To the extent this type of self-fulfilling prophecy occurs, it helps us understand why tracking is bad for the students tracked down. When teachers expect little of their students, their students tend to learn less.
Other research focuses on how teachers treat girls and boys. Teachers did not do this consciously, but their behavior nonetheless sent an implicit message to girls that math and science are not for girls and that they are not suited to do well in these subjects. Gender gaps: Where schools still fail our children. Ansalone, G. Tracking: A return to Jim Crow. Ballantine, J. The sociology of education: A systematic analysis 6th ed.
Battey, D. Professional development for teachers on gender equity in the sciences: Initiating the conversation. Teachers College Record, 1 , — Booher-Jennings, J. Learning to label: Socialisation, gender, and the hidden curriculum of high-stakes testing. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29 , — Grodsky, E. Testing and social stratification in American education. Annual Review of Sociology, 34 1 , — Hill, D. Capitalist education: Globalisation and the politics of inequality.
Capitalist schools: Explanation and ethics in radical studies of schooling. New York, NY: Routledge. Jones, S. A meta-analystic perspective on sex equity in the classroom. Review of Educational Research, 74 , — Oakes, J. Keeping track: How schools structure inequality 2nd ed. Rosenthal, R. Pygmalion in the classroom. New York, NY: Holt. Schildkraut, D. Schneider, L. Global sociology: Introducing five contemporary societies 5th ed.
Thorne, B. Gender play: Girls and boys in school. Skip to content Learning Objectives List the major functions of education. Explain the problems that conflict theory sees in education. Describe how symbolic interactionism understands education. These include a socialization, b social integration, c social placement, and d social and cultural innovation.
Latent functions include child care, the establishment of peer relationships, and lowering unemployment by keeping high school students out of the full-time labor force. Symbolic interactionism This perspective focuses on social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues.
Figure Education and Inequality Conflict theory does not dispute most of the functions just described. Symbolic Interactionism and School Behavior Symbolic interactionist studies of education examine social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues. Key Takeaways According to the functional perspective, education helps socialize children and prepare them for their eventual entrance into the larger society as adults. The conflict perspective emphasizes that education reinforces inequality in the larger society.
The symbolic interactionist perspective focuses on social interaction in the classroom, on school playgrounds, and at other school-related venues. For Your Review Review how the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives understand and explain education. Which of these three approaches do you most prefer?