Aug 10, · Where do penguins live? It is commonly known that penguins live in the icy parts on the world. But not all penguins live in the cold climatic conditions of Antarctica. Only 2 species, Emperor penguins and Adelie penguins have been found to live in the coastline of Antarctica in the Ross Sea Region where the average temperature is minus fifty. How do Penguins Keep Warm? Science of the Cold Be Big. Warm blooded animals in cold climates are pretty large, even the smallest Antarctic birds are on the large side and the smallest Antarctic penguin, the Rockhopper is a fairly hefty kg (lb).The Adelie and Emperor penguins of .
Emperors nest on ice, lay one egg in winter, and live up to 50 years. Emperors are regal and deliberate in manner. From space, the colonies how to play garena plus up in poop: Blotchy brown stains of guano stand out against rock and ice.
The resulting figure of 3. Nearly a third of the difference, they say, can be attributed to real increases at known colonies. Population trends are more pronounced on a regional scale. So far, the Ross Sea increases have been enough to offset declines elsewhere. Some scientists worry that climate change may shift the balance for penguins in coming decades. Membership benefits include one year of Audubon magazine and the latest on birds and their habitats.
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King Penguins: King Penguins have a bright and strong color on their head, chest and back. o Galapagos Penguins live near the Equator. Humboldt Penguins: Humboldt Penguins are natives from the coastal areas of Peru and Chile. Erect-Crested Penguins: Erect-crested Penguins are native to the Antipodes and Bounty Islands. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus), also known as the Cape penguin or South African penguin, is a species of penguin confined to southern African waters. Like all extant penguins, it is flightless, with a streamlined body and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat. Adults weigh an average of – kg (– lb) and are 60–70 cm (24–28 in) tall. Aug 20, · King penguins can form nesting colonies of up to 10, penguins. Each penguin keeps its neighbor at an exact but close distance.  Out of all the penguin and bird species, the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) breeds in the coldest funlovestory.com temperatures may reach ° F (° C) and wind speeds may reach 89 mph ( km/hr).
The African penguin Spheniscus demersus , also known as the Cape penguin or South African penguin , is a species of penguin confined to southern African waters.
Like all extant penguins, it is flightless , with a streamlined body and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat. Adults weigh an average of 2. The species has distinctive pink patches of skin above the eyes and a black facial mask.
The body upperparts are black and sharply delineated from the white underparts, which are spotted and marked with a black band. The pink glands above their eyes help them with thermoregulation. To cope with changing temperatures, blood is sent to the glands to be cooled by the air. The African penguin is a pursuit diver , and feeds primarily on fish and squid.
Once extremely numerous, the African penguin is declining rapidly due to a combination of several threats and is classified as endangered. It is a charismatic species and is popular with tourists. Other vernacular names of the species include black-footed penguin and jackass penguin , due to the species' loud, donkey-like bray ,  although several related species of South American penguins produce the same sound.
The African penguin was one of the many bird species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in the landmark 10th edition of his Systema Naturae , where he grouped it with the wandering albatross on the basis of its bill and nostril morphology and gave it the name Diomedea demersa. The African penguin is a banded penguin , placed in the genus Spheniscus. All are similar in shape, colour and behaviour.
The African penguin is a member of the class Aves and the order Sphenisciformes. It belongs to the penguin family Spheniscidae , and is classified as Spheniscus demersus.
The genus to which the African penguin belongs, Spheniscus , derives its name from the Ancient Greek word sphen 'wedge' , referring to their streamlined body shape. Its species name, demersus , is a Latin word for "plunging". African penguins grow to 60—70 cm 24—28 in tall and weigh between 2.
The sweat glands above the eyes cool the birds' blood, and as the temperature rises, increased blood flow causes the glands to get more pink. The beak is more pointed than that of the Humboldt. The African penguin's colouring is a form of protective colouration known as countershading.
The white undersides of the birds are difficult to spot by predators under the water, and the penguins' black backs blend in with the water when viewed from above. They have black feet and black spots that vary in size and shape between individuals. Magellanic penguins share a similar bar marking that often confuses the two; Magellanics have a double bar on the throat and chest, whereas the African has a single bar.
These penguins have the nickname "jackass penguin", which comes from the loud noises they make. The African penguin is only found on the south-western coast of Africa, living in colonies on 24 islands between Namibia and Algoa Bay , near Port Elizabeth , South Africa. Mainland colonies likely became possible only in recent times due to the reduction of predator numbers, although the Betty's Bay colony has been attacked by leopards. Boulders Beach is a tourist attraction due to the beach, swimming and the penguins.
Breeding populations of African penguins are being kept in numerous zoos worldwide. No colonies are known outside the south-western coast of Africa, although vagrants mostly juveniles may occasionally be sighted beyond the normal range. Roughly 4 million African penguins existed at the beginning of the 19th century.
Of the 1. African penguin populations, which breed in Namibia and South Africa, have declined by 95 percent since pre-industrial times. Today, their breeding is largely restricted to 24 islands from Namibia to Algoa Bay, South Africa,  with the Boulders Beach colony being an exception to this rule.
The total population fell to approximately ,—, in In , the total African penguin population was estimated at 55, At the rate of decline seen from to , the African penguin is expected to be extinct in the wild by In , about 18, breeding pairs were estimated to live in South Africa, with the majority on St. Croix Island in Algoa Bay.
The total breeding population across both South Africa and Namibia fell to a historic low of about 20, pairs in African penguins forage in the open sea, where they pursue pelagic fish such as sardines and anchovies specifically the Southern African anchovy ,  and marine invertebrates such as squid and small crustaceans.
Due to the collapse of a commercial pilchard sardine fishery in , the African penguin's diet has shifted towards anchovies to some extent, although available pilchard biomass is still a notable determinant of penguin population development and breeding success. While a diet of anchovy appears to be generally sufficient, it is not ideal due to anchovies' lower concentrations of fat and protein.
Penguin diet changes throughout the year; as in many seabirds, it is believed that the interaction of diet choice and breeding success helps the penguins maintain their population size.
Although parent penguins are protective of their hatchlings, they will not incur nutritional deficits themselves if prey is scarce and hunting requires a greater time or energy commitment. This may lead to higher rates of brood loss under poor food conditions. When foraging, African penguins carry out dives that reach an average depth of 25 m 82 ft and last for 69 s, although a maximum depth of m ft and duration of s has been recorded.
The African penguin is monogamous. The African penguin has an extended breeding season,  with nesting usually peaking from March to May in South Africa, and November to December in Namibia. Incubation is undertaken equally by both parents for around 40 days. Chicks fledge at 60 to days, the timing depending on environmental factors such as the quality and availability of food.
The fledged chicks then go to sea on their own, where they spend the next one to nearly two years. They then return to their natal colony to molt into adult plumage. When penguins molt , they are unable to forage as their new feathers are not yet waterproof; therefore, they fast over the entire molting period. Female African penguins remain fertile for 10 years. African penguins spend most of their lives at sea until it comes time for them to lay their eggs.
Due to high predation on the mainland, African penguins will seek protection on offshore islands, where they are safer from larger mammals and natural challenges. These penguins usually breed during the winter when temperatures are lower. African penguins often will abandon their eggs if they become overheated in the hot sun, and abandoned eggs do not survive the heat.
The eggs are three to four times bigger than hen's eggs. Ideally, eggs are incubated in a burrow dug into the guano layer which provides suitable temperature regulation , but the widespread human removal of guano deposits has rendered this type of nest unfeasible at many colonies.
To compensate, penguins dig holes in the sand, breed in the open, or make use of nest boxes if they are provided. The penguins spend three weeks on land to provide for their offspring, after which chicks may be left alone during the day while the parents forage. The chicks are frequently killed by predators or succumb to the hot sun. Parents usually feed hatchlings during dusk or dawn. In , when foraging conditions were favorable, more male than female African penguin chicks were produced in the colony on Bird Island.
Male chicks also had higher growth rates and fledging mass, and therefore may have higher post-fledging survival than females. This, coupled with higher adult female mortality in this species, may result in a male biased adult sex ratio and may indicate that conservation strategies focused on benefiting female African penguins may be necessary. The average lifespan of an African penguin is 10 to 27 years in the wild, and up to 30 in captivity.
Primary predators of African penguins include sharks and fur seals. While nesting, kelp gulls , mongooses , caracals , Cape genets and domestic cats and dogs may prey on the penguins and their chicks. African penguin eggs were considered a delicacy, and were still being collected for sale as recently as the s.
In the s, they were being collected from Dassen Island and sold in nearby towns. The practice of collecting African penguin eggs involved smashing those found a few days prior to a collecting effort to ensure that only freshly laid eggs were sold. This added to the drastic decline of the African penguin population around the Cape coast, a decline which was hastened by the removal of guano from islands for use as fertiliser, eliminating the burrowing material used by penguins.
Penguins remain susceptible to pollution of their habitat by petrochemicals from spills, shipwrecks and cleaning of tankers while at sea. Accounts of African penguins impacted by oil date back to the s.
Penguins of many species have been impacted by oil spills across the southern hemisphere. In , the tanker Esso Wheeling sank, subsequently oiling and killing thousands of penguins of the Dyer Island colony. In , oil spilled following the Oswego-Guardian and Texanita collision oiled roughly penguins. At the time, the Dassen Island colony was being passed by oil tankers each month  because the Suez Canal had become blocked with wrecked vessels, thus increasing maritime traffic past the Cape of Good Hope.
In , an oil spill prompted the collection and treatment of African penguins from St. Croix Island near Port Elizabeth. The animals were later released at Robben Island and four of them promptly swam back to St. Croix Island, surprising scientists. In , the exposure of penguins of Dassen Island to the oil slick from the Castillo de Bellver was also a topic of concern given the penguins' conservation status at the time, but owing to prevailing wind and current, only gannets were oiled.
African penguin casualties were significant following the sinking of the MV Apollo Sea and subsequent oil slick in It released —1, tonnes — long tons; —1, short tons of fuel oil, causing an unprecedented coastal bird crisis and oiling 19, adult penguins at the height of the best breeding season on record for this vulnerable species. An additional 19, un-oiled penguins were removed from Dassen Island and other areas before they became oiled, and were released about kilometres east of Cape Town, near Port Elizabeth.
This gave workers enough time to clean up the oiled waters and shores before the birds could complete their long swim home which took the penguins between one and three weeks. Some of the penguins were named and radio-tracked as they swam back to their breeding grounds. Due to the positive outcome of African penguins being raised in captivity after tragedies such as the Treasure oil spill, the species is considered a good "candidate for a captive-breeding programme which aims to release offspring into the wild"; however, worry about the spread of new strains of avian malaria is a major concern in the situation.
Small scale oil spills of less than litres US gal have occurred at the Port of Ngqura since bunkering activities started there in Bunkering is a ship refueling process that can result in oil spills and oil slicks entering the water. Hundreds of African penguins have been harmed following these spills,  due to the port's close proximity to penguin rookeries on St. Croix Island and seabird habitat on neighbouring Jahleel and Brenton Islands. Commercial fisheries of sardines and anchovy , the two main prey species of the penguins, have forced these penguins to search for prey farther offshore, as well as having to switch to eating less nutritious prey.
Longer closure periods and closures near other colonies are being evaluated.