Presidential Election Process
Primary election, in the United States, an election to select candidates to run for public office. Primaries may be closed (partisan), allowing only declared party members to vote, or open (nonpartisan), enabling all voters to choose which party’s primary they wish to vote in without declaring any party affiliation. Primaries may be direct or indirect. The primary election developed from this reform movement. In a primary election, registered voters may participate in choosing the candidate for the party's nomination by voting through secret ballot, as in a general election. There are two main types of primaries, closed or open, that determine who is eligible to vote in the primary.
Four years after the world watched Donald Trump's momentum build and build until he became the Republican nominee, America is again deciding who will run for the White House. The nominees are being chosen through a series of primaries and caucuses abotu every US state and territory, that began in Iowa on 3 February and ends in Puerto Rico in early June.
The Republican nominee will be Donald Trump. Even though technically he has a challenger, he tye so popular among Republicans, he has a clear run orimary of him.
With that in mind, the Democratic primaries are the only ones worth watching. A whole year before the primaries, the first al emerged from hibernation. Over the year, others woke up and eventually 28 people announced they were running to become the Democratic nominee for president. But dwindling funds, luke-warm or ice-cold public reaction and campaign infighting have, to varying degrees, led to most of them pulling out of the race. At the start electionn primary season, 11 people remained in the running, a number that has now reduced to three.
In theory, any one of them could become the nominee. In reality, only two now have a chance. The first event of the primary season isn't a primary at all - it's a series of caucuses, in Iowa. These took place what is the primary election all about Monday 3 February, in somewhat chaotic fashion. A caucus involves people attending a meeting - maybe for a few hours - before they vote on their preferred candidate, perhaps via a head count or a show of hands.
Those meetings might be in just a few select locations - you can't just turn up at a polling station. As a result, caucuses tend to really suit candidates who are good at rousing their supporters to get out of bed. People like Bernie Sanders, for example, who performed well in Iowa this time, as did Pete Buttigieg. Caucuses used to be far more popular back in the day, but this year, Democrats are holding only four in US states - in Nevada, North Dakota, Wyoming what book of the bible talks about david Iowa.
A win there for any candidate can help give them momentum and propel them to victory in the primaries. Why is Iowa first in the primary calendar? You can blame Jimmy Carter, sort of. Iowa became first infor various technical electoral reasons too boring to go into aboout.
But when Carter ran for president inhis team realised they could grab the momentum by campaigning early in Iowa. He won there, then surprisingly what is the primary election all about the presidency, and Iowa's fate was sealed.
Iowa doesn't represent the entire US - it's largely white, so the way people vote there is very, very different than in other states. Its record on picking the eventual nominees is a bit rubbish too, at least when it comes to Republicans - when there's an open Republican race, Iowa hasn't opted for the eventual nominee since primay This year, Iowa suffered a bloody nose when the Democratic result was delayed by days due to technical glitches.
Its curtain-raiser status may now be in doubt. The tiny north-eastern state of only 1. Unlike a caucus, where voters are expected to turn up at a few limited locations at certain times and stick around for a while, primary voters can just turn up at a polling booth and vote in secret. Then leave. The more votes a candidate gets in a caucus or primary, the more "delegates" they are awarded, and all candidates will be hoping to win an unbeatable majority of delegates.
The number of delegates differs in each state, and is decided by a convoluted series of criteria. In California's primary, for example, there are Democratic delegates up for grabs this year. In New Hampshire, it was only This year is a bit different. After New Hampshire, we started to get a clear picture of who was struggling Joe Biden, Elizabeth Warrenbut even how to replace the glass on iphone 3gs Bernie Sanders and Pete Buttigieg had claimed the most delegates at this stage, neither is guaranteed to become the nominee.
A few other states voted in between New Hampshire and the end of February, but things really started to warm up by Super Tuesday, on 3 March.
THE big date in the primary calendar, when 16 states, territories or groups voted for their preferred candidate in primaries or caucuses. A third of all the delegates available in the entire primary season were up for grabs on Super Tuesday.
By the end of the day it became much clearer that Joe Biden and Bernie Sanders how to draw a woman lying down the front-runners for the Democratic nomination. The two states with the most delegates voted on Super Tuesday - California with Democratic delegates and Texas California voted three months earlier than inmaking Super Tuesday even more super than normal.
After hectic Super Tuesday, everyone gets to cool down for a week, before another busy day on Tuesday, 10 March, when six states vote, with delegates available. After that, the primary season still has three months left to run and at the end, the role of those delegates will become clear Donald Trump will almost certainly be sworn in as the Republican nominee at the party convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, between wgat and 27 August.
The Democrats will confirm their candidate at their own convention between 13 and 16 July in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Let's say that during primary season, candidate A wins 10 delegates. During the convention, those si delegates would vote for candidate A to become the Democratic nominee. Any party member can apply to be a delegate - they tend to be party activists or local political leaders.
All through the Democratic primaries, there are 3, delegates available. This could well happen this year. There are so many candidates that no one frontrunner emerges in the primaries, and they split the delegates between them. In that circumstance, a second vote would follow. In that second vote, all the 3, delegates would tue again, except this time they would be joined by an estimated "superdelegates". These are senior party officials past and present former president Bill Clinton is one, as is current Vermont senator and presidential contender Bernie Sandersand they're free to vote for whomever they wish.
This is all thanks to a rule change in last time around, the superdelegates voted at the start of the convention, with the delegates. But many had pledged their support to Elecction Clinton even before the convention, leading her rival Mr Sanders to suggest the deck was stacked against him. After inching past Iowa, negotiated New Hampshire, survived Super Tuesday and come through the convention, there is only one how to make your bum whiter left for the nominee: the presidential election, on 3 November.
Democrats on the attack - against each other. The key issues for Democrats. Who are the Democrats vying to take on Trump? It's an unusual process, not all of what does the us flag mean to you makes sense, although we've tried. Step one: The start line.
Which Democrat will take on Trump? The strange symbol on one candidate's hand. Step two: The Iowa caucuses. What are caucuses? Nine odd things about the Iowa caucuses Democrats' key issues explained. Why does Iowa matter? Why does Iowa not matter? Share this Explainer. Step three: The New Hampshire primary. What is a primary? How does a primary work? The picture became much clearer on Step four: Super Tuesday.
What is Super Tuesday? Step five: The rest of the race. Step six: The conventions. What happens in a convention? Here's where those delegates come in. He's the one who campaigned for the change - and it may benefit him in Step seven: The presidency? We'll explain how that one works tge little closer to the time. Full primary season calendar.
Whar unless stated otherwise. Monday 3. Iowa caucuses Democratic, Republican. Tuesday New Hampshire D,R. Saturday Nevada D.
Saturday 29 :. South Carolina D. Tuesday 3 Super Tuesday. Thursday, Virgin Islands caucuses R. Guam caucuses R Northern Marianas D.
A primary election is an election used either to narrow the field of candidates for a given elective office or to determine the nominees for political parties in advance of a general election. Primary elections can take several different forms. Apr 14, · Simply put, a primary is a contest where voters cast ballots for their political party’s preferred candidate (s) running in upcoming local, state and/or national general elections. . Feb 02, · More than anything, this election is about President Trump. For most incumbent presidents running for reelection, approval ratings really matter. With Author: Mara Liasson.
Share this page. Follow Ballotpedia. A primary election is an election used either to narrow the field of candidates for a given elective office or to determine the nominees for political parties in advance of a general election.
Primary elections can take several different forms. In a partisan primary, voters select a candidate to be a political party's nominee for a given office in the corresponding general election. Nonpartisan primaries are used to narrow the field of candidates for nonpartisan offices in advance of a general election.
The terms of participation e. The methods employed to determine the outcome of the primary e. See the sections below for general information on the use of primary elections in the United States:. In general, there are two broad criteria by which primary elections can vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction:. The terms of participation in primary elections vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and, sometimes, within a jurisdiction; different political parties may enforce different participation criteria.
In general, there are three basic primary election participation models used in the United States:. Note : Louisiana does not conduct true primary elections.
Instead, all candidates running for a local, state, or federal office appear on the same ballot in either October in odd-numbered years or November in even-numbered years , regardless of their partisan affiliations. If a candidate wins a simple majority of all votes cast for the office i. If no candidate meets that threshold, the top two finishers, regardless of their partisan affiliations, advance to a second election in December.
In that election, the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes wins. Ballotpedia refers to Louisiana's electoral system as the Louisiana majority-vote system. Because it is possible for a candidate to win election in the first round of voting, Louisiana is not categorized by the primary election types listed below. In 21 states, at least one political party conducts open primaries for congressional and state-level offices.
The map below identifies states in which at least one political party utilizes open primaries for congressional and state-level elections. Hover over a state for additional details. In 14 states and the District of Columbia, at least one political party conducts closed primaries for congressional and state-level offices.
The map below identifies states in which at least one political party utilizes closed primaries for congressional and state-level elections. In 14 states, at least one political party conducts semi-closed primaries for congressional and state-level offices. The map below identifies states in which at least one political party utilizes semi-closed primaries for congressional and state-level elections.
In , Washington became the first state to adopt a top-two primary system for congressional and state-level elections. California followed suit in In Nebraska , a top-two primary system is utilized for state legislative elections. Because Nebraska's state legislature is nonpartisan, partisan affiliation labels are not listed alongside the names of state legislative candidates.
In , Alaska voters approved a ballot initiative establishing a top-four primary for state executive, state legislative, and congressional elections. The initiative also established ranked-choice voting for general elections for the aforementioned offices and the presidency. The map below identifies states that utilize top-two primary elections. In 40 of the 50 states, the candidate who receives the greatest number of votes in a primary election is considered the winner, even if he or she does not win more than 50 percent of votes cast.
In 10 states identified in the map and table below , a candidate must win a majority of votes cast that is, more than 50 percent in order to win a primary. In these states, if no candidate reaches that threshold, a primary runoff election is held. See the map and table below for further details. Unless otherwise specified, the states identified below conduct primary runoffs if no candidate, regardless of the office being sought, wins an outright majority of the votes cast.
The map below identifies states in which legislation related to the conduct of primary elections has been introduced. Hover over a state to see the precise number of relevant bills introduced in that state. A darker shade of red indicates a greater number of relevant bills. In those states shaded in white, relevant bills have not been introduced. For state-specific details, click a state in the map below or select a state from the drop-down menu beneath the map.
A list of state legislation will display, including information about bill status and links to full text. This information is provided by BillTrack To return to the map, click "Back" in the upper righthand corner of the legislation list.
See below for a complete list of primary systems bills. To learn more about a particular bill, click its title. This information is provided by BillTrack50 and LegiScan. Ballotpedia features , encyclopedic articles written and curated by our professional staff of editors, writers, and researchers. Click here to contact our editorial staff, and click here to report an error. Click here to contact us for media inquiries, and please donate here to support our continued expansion. Share this page Follow Ballotpedia.
What's on your ballot? Jump to: navigation , search. In 14 states, at least one political party conducts closed primaries for congressional and state-level offices. Terms of participation The terms of participation in primary elections vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and, sometimes, within a jurisdiction; different political parties may enforce different participation criteria. In general, there are three basic primary election participation models used in the United States: Open primaries : An open primary is any primary election in which a voter either does not have to formally affiliate with a political party in order to vote in its primary or can declare his or her affiliation with a party at the polls on the day of the primary even if the voter was previously affiliated with a different party.
Voters who previously affiliated with a political party who did not change their affiliations in advance cannot vote in another party's primary. The candidate need not win an outright majority to be elected. These systems are sometimes referred to as first-past-the-post or winner-take-all.
In the event that no candidate wins an outright majority, a runoff election is held between the top two vote-getters. For this reason, majority systems are sometimes referred to as two-round systems. Ranked-choice voting is a specific type of majority voting system that may also be used in primary elections.
Consequently, it is possible that two candidates belonging to the same political party could win in a top-two primary and face off in the general election. A top-two primary should not be confused with a blanket primary. In a blanket primary, all candidates are listed on the same primary ballot; the top vote-getter from each party participating in the primary advances to the general election.
Primary elections by state. Types of primaries Closed primary , Open primary Semi-closed primary Top-two primary Blanket primary. In Alabama, a voter may participate in any party's primary by declaring his or her preference for that party at the polls on the day of the primary election. A voter must publicly state his or her affiliation at the polling place in order to vote in a party's primary. Section of the Indiana Code stipulates that, in order to participate in a party's primary, a voter must have either voted for a majority of that party's nominees in the last general election or must intend to vote for a majority of the party's nominees in the upcoming general election.
According to FairVote, which classifies Indiana as an open primary state, this provision of the law is unenforceable due to the nature of secret balloting. Section North Dakota. According to FairVote, a voter can "choose a party affiliation on the day of the election. South Carolina. Section of the Tennessee Code stipulates that a voter must either be registered with a political party or must declare his or her affiliation with the party at the polls on primary election day in order to vote in that party's primary.
A voter must be affiliated with a political party in order to participate in its primary election. Any voter, regardless of previous partisan affiliation, may change his or her affiliation on the day of the primary. Section of the General Statutes of Connecticut stipulates that only registered members of a political party are entitled to vote in that party's primary, though a party may choose to permit unaffiliated voters to participate in its primary.
State law stipulates that political parties can determine for themselves who may participate in their primary elections.
New Mexico. Section of the Oklahoma Statutes stipulates that only a registered member of a political party can vote in that party's primary. The law does grant parties the authority to determine for themselves whether unaffiliated voters may vote in their primaries. South Dakota.
Section of the South Dakota Codified Laws stipulates that a voter who has registered with a political party can only vote in that party's primary. The statute does grant parties the authority to determine for themselves whether unaffiliated voters may participate in their primaries. Unaffiliated voters can affiliate with a party on the day of the election and participate in its primary.
Voters who are already affiliated with a political party must disaffiliate no later than the 10th Friday preceding the primary election in order to affiliate with another party and vote in its primary. Section of the Kansas Statutes stipulates that a voter who is already affiliated with a political party can participate only in that party's primary. An unaffiliated voter can declare his or her affiliation with a political party on the day of the election and vote in that party's primary.