The nursing role in epidemiology, risk management, and patient-public education
Dec 23, · Community Health Nurse (CHN) working as the member of health care team in various health agencies are to participate in epidemiological studies done in their community. They need to participate actively, meaningfully and intelligently throughout the process. The nursing role in epidemiology, risk management, and patient-public education Epidemiology encompasses the identification of infectious disease, the vectors of transmission, the sources of contamination, the patient population exposed or involved, containment practices, and preventative measures to stop further transmission of the funlovestory.com by: 1.
The origin of epidemiology has been traced whta to Hippocrates BC who tried to explain the association of life style and environmental factors with occurrence of disease. The foundation of modern epidemiology is laid down in the late 19 th century when infection and communicable diseases like cholera, typhoid, plague etc. Last in Community Health Nurse CHN working as the member of health care team in various health agencies are to participate in epidemiological studies epidemiologlcal in their community.
They need to participate actively, meaningfully and intelligently throughout the process. There are seven steps of epidemiological investigation process for doing any epidemiological study.
Once the data is collected it is compiled that is it is summed up, computed into rate and ratio, presented in tables, graph and charts tested statistically.
This done according to the objectives and hypothesis of the study. One the basis of processs conclusion is draw and stated. The results are and Implication in terms of possible application is discussed. Numerate refers to the number of times event has occurred in population during specific period of time. Denominator has related to population or total event. This study is usually the 1 st phase of a epidemiological investigation. These studies are concerned with observing the distribution healfh diseases or health related characteristic in human population sand identify the characteristics with which the disease in questions seems to be associated.
Events in the population in terms of person, place, and time. That is, when? In this design of descriptive method of studywhat do monarch butterfly larvae eat is collected nurslng a cross section of population at a one point in time. It is based on the single examination of cross wbat of population at one what are the benefits of amino acid supplements in time the result of te can be projected on the whole population provided the sampling has been done correctly.
It also called prevalence study. In which observation are repeated in same population over a prolonged period of time by means hte follow up examinations.
Longitudinal studies are use full to study the. Analytical studies are the second major type of epidemiological epidemiologicall. Analytical studies comprise two distant type of observational studies. In this method a group of people who have been diagnosed as having a particular problem eg:- lung cancer compared with a group of people who are similar in characteristics to that of cases but they are free from the problem that is free from lung cancer under study.
Here the study is retrospective. It is selected from hospitals and general population. Inhospitals cases drawn from single or network of hospital, admitted during specific duration of time. Matching isdefined as the process by which we select control in such a way that they are similar to cases with regard to epidemiiological pertinent selected variable which are known to be influence the outcome of disease and which, if not adequately matched for comparability, could distort or confound the results.
Information about exposure should be obtained in precisely the same manner both for cases and control. This may be obtained by interwar, by questionnaires, or by studying the past recordetc. Nursin step is analysisto finding out exposure rate among cases and controls the suspected factor, risk associated.
In epidemiology the term cohort is defined as a group of people who share a common characteristic or experience which in a defined time period. Cohort study is prospective in nature because the group under study is free from the disease but exposed to risk factor and epidemiologist study the development of the how to meet the man of your dreams over the time.
Epidemiollgical study is expensive and time consuming but it has its advantage over retrospective method. This method help to study the natural history of disease estimating insides rate, risk of developing of e;idemiological risk factor under study to other disease or problems. This is also called as historical cohort study.
In this study design the event has already occurred. The investigator goes back in time proceas and identifies what is the community- health nursing role in the epidemiological process cases from existing record to be included in the study what is opec stand for. The investigator identifies the cohort from past whwt and trace forward till data. The same cohort is followed up farther for assessment prospectively up to designed period.
He then observed and analyses the outcome using statistical method and conform the cause of disease how to copy structure of table in sql establishes the efficacy of preventive measures and drug under study. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS – community health nursing lecture notes
Epidemiology is the study of the determinants and distribution of health, disease, and injuries in human populations. It is a specialized form of scientific research that can provide health care workers, including community health nurses, with a body of knowledge on which to base their practice and methods for studying new and existing funlovestory.com Size: KB.
Epidemiology is the science of public health and, like all sciences, it consists of procedures designed to ensure the validity and accuracy of its conclusions. Unlike other sciences, however, the findings of epidemiological studies can result in urgent legal or legislative action, large-scale quarantine, or formal emergency declarations.
Because the results of epidemiological studies can be severe and far-reaching, the process by which scientists arrive at their conclusions must be stringent and standardized. Students currently pursuing a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree DNP may one day be assigned to work with local hospitals and medical units near the site of a potential outbreak.
Once in place, a DNP will strive to apply proven practices and methodologies designed to help combat and outbreak, so proficiency in epidemiology for a DNP is a must.
Unlike most medical sciences, epidemiology is primarily a quantitative discipline. Epidemiologists investigate reports of multiple occurrences of a disease in close proximity to each other. The urgency of an outbreak-type situation is determined by finding the rate of the disease. Investigators formulate rate by counting the number of cases, dividing the number by the total population, and comparing the result to other known variables to define whether the outbreak is typical or atypical for the region.
Once cases are identified, the credible cases are put through both descriptive and analytical epidemiology:. After epidemiologists determine the rate of disease, how occurrences should be categorized, and how the categories compare to numbers from a comparison group, they can begin to narrow their search for contributing risk factors. Identifying risk factors involves studying the rate of illness in an affected population and comparing it to the rate in an unaffected comparison group.
Epidemiologists generally weigh two types of risks: attributable and relative. Attributable risk refers to the difference between the rate of disease in exposed and unexposed people. For instance, the risk of lung cancer is higher for people exposed to cigarette smoke. Relative risk compares risks between different groups.
For example, the relative risk of dying in a plane crash is extremely high, but most people will never be involved in a crash. Coggon, Ph. The crux of epidemiology is identifying areas where outbreaks are happening at a higher rate than would be considered normal.
Scientists then recommend measures to DNPs, who will find ways to implement them in a healthcare setting. Finally, once an outbreak is contained, medical professionals can work on addressing factors that should be corrected to bring the situation back to normal.
Epidemiologists tend to classify disease outbreaks into three categories of varying severity. Pharmaceutical authority Dr. Once an epidemiological team such as the CDC identifies a valid concern, a governing agency will usually get involved.
Quarantines may be issued, emergency workers may be deployed, and shipments of supplies may be delivered en masse to the affected area. Once the stage is set, epidemiologists and other healthcare workers can get to work on prevention. DNPs play an instrumental role in implementing preventive measures and treatment procedures in healthcare facilities.
According to the uOttowa. Currently, many DNPs are deployed to Zika epidemic areas. Once on location, they help establish an infrastructure for treatment and prevention at local facilities. Since Zika can be transmitted by flying insects and through sexual contact, DNPs focus on implementing preventive measures ranging from mosquito control to classes on sexually transmitted infections.
In practice, epidemiology will circle around, passing from qualifying outbreaks to assessing risk, to prevention, and back to qualifying outbreaks again. Public health requires constant attention from epidemiologists. Coursework in epidemiology and biostatistics, ethical leadership, transcultural care and global health perspectives, and translating evidence into practice can enable students to become effective managers of nursing personnel from hospital ERs to traveling disaster medical teams.
Skip to main content. A Quantitative Science Unlike most medical sciences, epidemiology is primarily a quantitative discipline. Once cases are identified, the credible cases are put through both descriptive and analytical epidemiology: Descriptive epidemiology — Researchers categorize cases according to time, place, and person to paint a clearer picture of the urgency of the outbreak.
Analytical epidemiology — Investigators compare the rate of the illness to rates in comparison groups to determine whether the outbreak is higher than expected. Attributable And Relative Risk Identifying risk factors involves studying the rate of illness in an affected population and comparing it to the rate in an unaffected comparison group. Both factors should be taken into consideration. Learn more about our DNP program. Get Program Details. This will only take a moment.
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