The 116 things that can give you cancer – the full list
Any substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. But simply because a substance has been designated as a carcinogen does not mean that the substance will necessarily cause cancer. Many factors influence whether a person exposed to a carcinogen will develop cancer, including the amount and duration of the exposure and the individual. Carcinogens are substances or factors that can cause cancer. Examples can include chemicals, medical or environmental radiation, some viruses, lifestyle factors, and even some medications. Carcinogens are classified in a number of different ways as to the likelihood that they truly cause cancer, and whether this is known or only suspected.
Rocked by the news that processed meat could be terribly bad for you? Well, chimney sweeping, salted fish and fracking also appear on the list compiled by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Handily, the International Agency for Research on Cancer — a body that collects and publishes cancer figures worldwide — has a list of the substances and activities for some of them are more verb than noun that are what are some carcinogens that cause cancer considered to cause cancer.
The fumes of chemicals the workers may inhale, and exposure to coal-tar pitch volatiles for long periods during the process, can cause cancer. Arsenic is known to cause skin cancer, and linked to causing liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer.
A study found there to be an excess of bladder tumours among men engaged in the manufacture of auramine, through inhaling harmful agents, such as formaldehyde and sulphur, during the manufacturing process. It could be caused by inhalation and accidental ingestion of coal and burnt wood fumes and residue.
It is used as a base for coatings and paint, in roofing and paving, and as a binder in asphalt products. Both coal tar and coal-tar pitch contain many chemical compounds, including carcinogens such as benzene. Human exposure to coal tars can be through inhalation, ingestion, and absorption through the skin. The general population can be exposed to coal tars in environmental contaminants. It may also increase the risk of cancers of the larynx voice box and pharynx upper throat.
Exposures in the iron and steel founding industry are complex and include a wide variety of known genotoxic and carcinogenic substances including metals and formaldehyde.
The colourless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odour has a wide variety of industrial, household and pharmaceutical uses. Isopropyl alcohol solution is found in rubbing alcohol, hand how to take off front glass on iphone 4, and disinfecting pads. Yet some carcinogenic chemicals were banned from hair dyes in what does spleen look like s.
Deaths such as bladder cancer and leukaemia in such cases could have been from an exposure to benzene — a chemical at high levels that can cause cancer and found in paint production — mixed with other organic solvents. Cases of lung cancer may be from exposure to particles containing lead chromate and to asbestos in the paint trade.
Studies examining countries with workers in the rubber industry showed they were more likely to have cancers such as bladder cancer, lung cancer, and leukaemia. It is known to cause increased risk of mouth and oesophageal cancer. It is a risk if coal dust produced from old-fashioned coal-burning fires is inhaled. Over 30 components of diesel oil are listed at various levels of carcinogenic by the IARC.
Highly refined oils are classified as group-3, meaning they are not suspected to be carcinogenic, yet due to insufficient findings, cannot be classified as harmless. Studies of PCBs in humans have found increased how to make a homemade guitar strap of melanomas, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, biliary tract cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, and brain cancer, and may be linked to breast cancer.
PCBs are known to cause a variety of cancers in animals. These foods can be very high in nitrates and nitrites, which react with protein to form nitrosamines. These chemicals can damage DNA. Chemicals used in fracking are known to be of concern and have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Benzene, acrylamide, and formaldehyde are all listed by the IARC as human carcinogens.
Examples include ham, bacon and sausages. Environment Climate change Wildlife Energy Pollution. This article is more than 5 years old.
The World Health Organisation said processed meats are among the most carcinogenic substances along with cigarettes, alcohol, sunbeds and arsenic. Composite: Rex, Alamy. Aisha Gani and Benedict Nicholson. Wed 28 Oct Processed meats rank alongside smoking as cancer causes — WHO. Read more. How bad is meat for me? Frankly, the experts don't know. Ground to dust: fracking, silicosis and the politics of public health.
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Known Substances That Are Carcinogenic to Humans. Alcoholic beverages. Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds. Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos. Benzene. Cadmium and cadmium compounds. Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion. Oct 28, · 38 Wood dust: Awareness of wood dust as a carcinogen and cause of nasal cancer is on the rise. In a cabinet maker’s widow successfully sued for ?, after her husband’s death Author: Aisha Gani. Apr 05, · It is classified as a carcinogen by the World Health Organization ‘s (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Inhaling formaldehyde over a short period of time can cause burning sensations in the eyes, nose and throat, as well as coughing, wheezing and nausea. Aniline, a highly corrosive industrial chemical, is also a known carcinogen.
In general, the American Cancer Society does not determine if something causes cancer that is, if it is a carcinogen , but we do look to other respected organizations for help with this. When a substance or exposure has been labeled a carcinogen, it means it has been studied extensively by researchers, and one or more agencies have evaluated the evidence and determined it to be a cause of cancer.
Others may be caused by outside exposures , which are often referred to as environmental factors. Environmental factors can include a wide range of exposures, such as:. Others do not affect DNA directly, but lead to cancer in other ways.
For example, they may cause cells to divide at a faster than normal rate, which could increase the chances that DNA changes will occur. Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time.
Substances labeled as carcinogens can have different levels of cancer-causing potential. Some might increase cancer risk after only a short exposure, but others might only cause cancer after prolonged, high levels of exposure. And for any particular person, the risk of developing cancer depends on many factors, including how they are exposed to a carcinogen, the length and intensity of the exposure, and the person's genetic makeup. Testing to see if something can cause cancer is often difficult.
Instead, scientists must use other types of tests, such as lab tests on cell cultures and animals, or epidemiology studies, which look at human populations. These types of tests might not always give clear answers. There are far too many substances both natural and man-made to test each one, so scientists use what is already known about chemical structures, results from other types of lab tests, the extent of human exposure, and other factors to select chemicals for testing.
For example, they can often get an idea about whether a substance might cause a problem by comparing it to similar chemicals that have already been studied. Scientists get much of their data about whether something might cause cancer from lab studies of cell cultures and animals. Lab studies alone can't always predict if a substance will cause cancer in people. However, almost all carcinogens are first tested on and found to cause cancer in lab animals then are later found to cause cancer in people.
Most studies of potential carcinogens expose the lab animals to doses that are much higher than common human exposures. This is so that cancer risk can be detected in relatively small groups of animals.
For example, the effects seen in lab studies with very high doses of a substance may not be the same at much lower doses, or the effects of a substance when it is inhaled may not be the same as if it is applied to the skin. Also, the bodies of lab animals and humans don't always process substances in the same way.
It isn't always possible to know how the exposure dose might affect risk, but it is reasonable for public health purposes to assume that lowering human exposure will reduce risk. Another important way to identify carcinogens is through epidemiology studies , which look at different groups of people to determine which factors might be linked to cancer. These studies also provide useful information, but they have their limits. People are exposed to all kinds of substances at any given time, including those they encounter at work, school, or home; in the food they eat; and in the air they breathe.
This can make it very hard to determine which of these factors might be linked to cancer. By combining data from both types of studies, scientists do their best to make an educated assessment of whether something can cause cancer. Several national and international agencies review the available evidence to try to determine the cancer-causing potential of different substances.
One of its major goals is to identify causes of cancer. The most widely used system for classifying carcinogens comes from the IARC. Over the past several decades, the IARC has evaluated the cancer-causing potential of more than 1, likely candidates, placing them into one of the following groups:.
Perhaps not surprisingly, based on how hard it can be to test possible carcinogens, most are listed as being of probable, possible, or unknown risk. The IARC publishes its findings, including the detailed evidence to support them, in volumes known as monographs.
The current version of the RoC includes about substances and exposures, which are listed here. Some state agencies also keep lists of known or probable carcinogens. The American Cancer Society ACS contributes in many ways to evaluating how environmental factors affect a person's likelihood of developing cancer, including:.
In most cases, the ACS does not directly evaluate whether a certain substance or exposure causes cancer. Instead, the ACS looks to national and international organizations such as the NTP and IARC, whose mission is to evaluate environmental cancer risks based on evidence from laboratory and human research studies.