Exploration and development of oil and gas fields at home and abroad is getting harder and more complex, and a large number of new technologies keep emerging. I don’t want to write the story of my life. Actually, I’m not sure that you will read even about this short, albeit significant episode of my life journey. I’ve decided to write about this moment because I really want to memorize it. I want to share the story about one car ride that has changed the way I see myself and the people around me.
The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic ; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research.
Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments.
Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way.
Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.
Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow how to convert from ppm to molarity the next section.
Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph.
Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis warrant. However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic.
Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date. The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view.
Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader.
Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work. Learn what elements every argumentative essay should include and how to structure it depending on your audience in this easy step-by-step guide.
Argumentative essays should have a straightforward structure so they are easy for readers to follow. The goal of an argumentative essay is to clearly outline a point of view, reasoning, and evidence. A good argumentative essay should follow this structure:. These steps will help you get your point across clearly and concisely:. There are five types of argument claims that can drive your essay:. There are three main ways to structure an argumentative how to create user level security in access 2007. Choose one of the following or combine them to write your persuasive paper:.
Renowned nonfiction storyteller and bestselling author of Blink and The Tipping PointMalcolm Gladwell has spent decades honing his craft. His books have helped millions of readers grasp complex ideas like behavioral economics and performance prediction. In his class, Malcolm provides insight into how to research topics and distills big ideas into simple, powerful narratives.
Want to become a better writer? The definition of an argumentative essay is a research paper that takes a position on a controversial issue and tries to present evidence in favor of that position.
The world is full of argumentative essay topics. You can select a high-profile subject like abortion or go for a smaller fish like organic eating. This will make the research and writing — dare we say — fun. The first sample essay below follows the sample outline presented in Argumentative Essay Outlines. The basic formula is this:. Body Paragraphs — containing at least three striking arguments and one rebuttal to the opposing side.
This essay is something a high schooler might consider as they prepare for the four most exciting years of their lives — college. Much of our learning takes place outside the classroom. We how to prank your step dad how to maintain budgets, forge friendships, develop business relationships, and more. Imagine extending those skills on a global level.
We would immediately cease to believe the world only contains the people and things we can see but, rather, a wide variety of opinions, customs, beliefs, and ethics.
This is why every college-level student must study abroad during their undergraduate years. They will learn more in that semester abroad than in any other academic year. According to IES Abroad, a company that encourages students to become international leaders, students who study abroad are more likely to be accepted into the graduate degree program of their choice. Imagine walking into an interview and being able to discuss preparing the most popular dish in India or organizing the best route to take from Sydney, Australia to Perth.
All this makes someone who has studied abroad a more desirable candidate for their dream job. Beyond college, students who study abroad will be better equipped to succeed in the workplace. Their broadened worldview will help them relate to their co-workers, especially in a worldwide organization. That is clear evidence that their experiences and views are valued by employers. In spite of all these benefits, some parents simply will not allow their children to study abroad. A portion will argue that it is not safe.
Others will argue that studying abroad costs too much money. How much does it cost to be a student at a local university? New windows of opportunity will be flung open the moment an undergraduate boards a plane. Why not make an appointment with the study abroad center at your university? You have nothing to lose by starting a conversation today. So, what is an argumentative essay? It was p. They died instantly. A year-old woman who was upset over an argument she had with her husband proceeded to drink two bottles of wine and then get behind the wheel to buy a third.
More to the point, the ever-popular Abigail would still be alive. Every day, nearly 30 people die, thanks to drunk-driving crashes Wilson,p. That equals one person every 48 minutes. In less time than it takes someone to watch the latest episode of Game of Thrones, someone will be killed due to drunk driving.
If a high school student begins drinking alcohol during these formative years, they become five times more likely to drop out of school Perry,p. People all over the world drink to celebrate happy occasions. They also drink with friends after a difficult day.
Social drinkers ingest wine or beer while preparing dinner, watching how to write an autobiography for medical school movie, sitting out on the back patio, enjoying a picnic, dining downtown, and more. Why is alcohol so pervasive if it is a choice? Why do so many what does a billboard cost choose to drink it?
Are more people dependent than they realize? Over 17 million Americans have alcohol use disorders Legg,p. Not every heavy drinker will become a how to write an autobiography for medical school alcoholic, but alcoholism is a progressive disease.
However, what if the gateway to bad decisions was removed? After all, alcohol is an addictive substance. Even if someone is a moderate drinker, alcohol serves no health purposes. With every sip, partakers are ingesting ethanol, the same thing that is pumped into the gas tanks of cars. That year old woman went from a life of luxury to life in prison with only one hour of sunlight.
She eats slosh for breakfast, unidentifiable meat for lunch, and soggy potatoes for dinner. No one comes to visit her. Her father died of cirrhosis of the liver.
In a world without alcohol, she still would have made plenty of bad decisions, but how to make a square out of paper never would have landed in a prison cell because she took the lives of sweet Abigail and her how to cook beef cubes in crock pot mother.
Nov 28, · Learn more about personal statements and get expert tips to help write an acceptance-worthy statement for your application. the personal essay isn't meant to be an autobiography or a long-form reiteration of the applicant's resume. "One medical school candidate I worked with wanted to become a psychiatrist due to her own personal. Essay - Don't worry about your writing assignments and enjoy you college life with our trusted essay writing help agency! Our paper writing service is the best way to make your dream 'Essay' come true! Get quick help with essay writing for the best price!
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches , or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, executives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, memoirs, magazine articles, or other written material.
Memoir ghostwriters often pride themselves in "disappearing" when impersonating others since such disappearance signals the quality of their craftsmanship. Screenplay authors can also use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant", but often the ghostwriter is not credited.
Ghostwriting or simply "ghosting" also occurs in other creative fields. Composers have long hired ghostwriters to help them to write musical pieces and songs; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid to ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons. Ghosting also occurs in popular music.
A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician. In hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an 'expert' in their field.
Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence.
A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters. A controversial and scientifically unethical practice is medical ghostwriting, where biotech or pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and then recruit via payment or as a perk other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these articles before they are published in medical or scientific journals.
Some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers, theses, and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing.
Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several hundred page autobiography or "how-to" book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced.
In other cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year under the name of well-known, highly marketable authors, or to quickly release a topical book that ties in with a recent or upcoming newsworthy event.
Ghostwriters will often spend from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing non-fiction and fiction works for a client, and they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof. One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon's Kindle Singles imprint: texts of 30, words and under.
Writers on the level of Ian McEwan have celebrated this recent change, mainly for artistic reasons. It was once financially impractical for publishers to produce such novella-length texts they would have to charge too much ; but this new market is, by , already substantial and has been projected to be a solid part of the future of book publishing.
On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees can be much higher. There is also the consideration of different benchmarks in different countries. Research fees are an extra charge on top of this minimum fee.
A recent availability also exists, of outsourcing many kinds of jobs, including ghostwriting, to offshore locations like India, China, and the Philippines where the customer can save money.
In some cases, ghostwriters are allowed to share credit. Sometimes this is done in lieu of pay or to decrease the amount of payment to the book ghostwriter for whom the credit has its own intrinsic value. Also, the ghostwriter can be cited as a co-author of a book, or listed in the movie or film credits when having ghostwritten the script or screenplay for film production. For nonfiction books, the ghostwriter may be credited as a "contributor" or a "research assistant". In other cases, the ghostwriter receives no official credit for writing a book or article; in cases where the credited author or the publisher or both wish to conceal the ghostwriter's role, the ghostwriter may be asked to sign a nondisclosure contract that legally forbids any mention of the writer's role in a project.
Some have made the distinction between "author" and "writer", as ghostwriter Kevin Anderson explains in a Washington Post interview: "A ghostwriter is an interpreter and a translator, not an author, which is why our clients deserve full credit for authoring their books.
Ghostwriters are widely used by celebrities and public figures who wish to publish their autobiographies or memoirs.
The degree of involvement of the ghostwriter in nonfiction writing projects ranges from minor to substantial. Various sources explain the role of the ghostwriter and how competent writers can get this kind of work.
In some cases, a ghostwriter may be called in just to clean up, edit, and polish a rough draft of an autobiography or a "how-to" book. In other cases, the ghostwriter will write an entire book or article based on information, stories, notes, an outline, or interview sessions with the celebrity or public figure.
The credited author also indicates to the ghostwriter what type of style, tone, or "voice" they want in the book.
In some cases, such as with some "how-to" books, diet guides, or cookbooks, a book will be entirely written by a ghostwriter, and the celebrity e. Publishing companies use this strategy to increase the marketability of a book by associating it with a celebrity or well-known figure.
In several countries before elections, candidates commission ghostwriters to produce autobiographies for them so as to gain visibility and exposure.
Two of John F. Kennedy 's books are almost entirely credited to ghostwriters. A consultant or career-switcher may pay to have a book ghostwritten on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance their credibility as an "expert" in their field. For example, a successful salesperson hoping to become a motivational speaker on selling may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on sales techniques. Often this type of book is published by a self-publishing press or " vanity press " , which means that the author is paying to have the book published.
This type of book is typically given away to prospective clients as a promotional tool, rather than being sold in bookstores. Ghostwriters are employed by fiction publishers for several reasons. In some cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year by a well-known, highly marketable author.
Ghostwriters are mostly used to pen fiction works for well-known "name" authors in genres such as detective fiction, mysteries, and teen fiction. Additionally, publishers use ghostwriters to write new books for established series where the "author" is a pseudonym. Dixon ", respectively, are actually pseudonyms for a series of ghostwriters who write books in the same style using a template of basic information about the book's characters and their fictional universe names, dates, speech patterns , and about the tone and style that are expected in the book for more information, see the articles on pseudonyms or pen names.
In addition, ghostwriters are often given copies of several of the previous books in the series to help them match the style. The estate of romance novelist V. Andrews hired ghostwriter Andrew Neiderman to continue writing novels after her death, under her name and in a similar style to her original works.
Many of action writer Tom Clancy 's books from the s bear the names of two people on their covers, with Clancy's name in larger print and the other author's name in smaller print. Various books bearing Clancy's name were written by different authors under the same pseudonym. Sometimes famous authors will ghostwrite for other celebrities as well, such as when H. Pascendi , for instance, was written by Joseph Lemius — , the procurator in Rome of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
Academic ghostwriting is academic dishonesty, considered as unethical and this can lead to repercussions if detected by universities,  academic ghostwriting does not represent illegal activity in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany.
There are ghostwriting companies  and freelancers  that sell entrance essays, term papers, theses and dissertations to students. Such services are sometimes offered by what is referred to as essay mills and frequently transacted through online interfaces.
Although academic ghostwriting involves the sale of academic texts that are written on demand, it cannot be equated with plagiarism , since it does not involve an undisclosed appropriation of existing texts. As opposed to cases of plagiarism that stem from a copy-and-paste reuse of previous work, essays and assignments that are obtained through ghostwriting services as a rule have the originality of their text confirmed by plagiarism detection software packages or online services that are widely used by universities.
Universities have developed strategies to combat this type of academic services, which can be associated with academic fraud , that are offered to students and researchers. Some universities allow professors to give students oral examinations on papers which a professor believes to be 'ghostwritten.
With medical ghostwriting, pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and then pay other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these papers before they are published in medical or scientific journals.
Medical ghostwriting has been criticized by a variety of professional organizations   representing the drug industry, publishers, and medical societies, and it may violate American laws prohibiting off-label promotion by drug manufacturers as well as anti-kickback provisions within the statutes governing Medicare. It is permitted at some institutions [ clarify ] , including the University of Washington School of Medicine ,   [ verification needed ] while it is prohibited and considered a particularly pernicious form of plagiarism at others, such as Tufts University School of Medicine.
Professional medical writers can write papers without being listed as authors of the paper and without being considered ghostwriters, provided their role is acknowledged. The European Medical Writers Association have published guidelines which aim to ensure professional medical writers carry out this role in an ethical and responsible manner.
Some websites, including blogs , are ghostwritten, because not all authors have the information technology skills or the time to dedicate to running a website. Nonetheless, the style, tone and content is modeled on that of the credited author. Many website ghostwriters are freelance but some are freelancers who work under contract , as with radio presenters and television presenters. Occasionally a "house pseudonym", or collective name is used by the author of the website.
Some celebrities, CEOs , or public figures set up blog websites—sometimes as a marketing, public relations, or lobbying tool.
However, since these individuals are typically too busy to write their blog posts, they hire discreet ghostwriters to post to the blog under the celebrity or CEO's name. As with nonfiction ghostwriting, the blog ghostwriter models their writing style, content and tone on that of the credited author.
This goes for social media as well. Many public figures have ghostwriters at least partially handle their Facebook and Twitter accounts, among others. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an example of a well-known composer who was paid to ghostwrite music for wealthy patrons.
In the early years of film, David Raksin worked as music ghostwriter and orchestrator for Charlie Chaplin ; even though Chaplin was credited as the score writer, he was considered to be a "hummer" pejorative film industry slang for a person who purports to be a film score composer but who in fact only gives a general idea of the melodies to a ghostwriter.
The practice is also common in television, as composers listed on cue sheets are entitled to music royalties every time an episode or theme score appears on television. A investigation by The Hollywood Reporter revealed that it was especially prevalent among animation companies such as Saban Entertainment , DiC , Ruby-Spears Productions and Hanna-Barbera , which often listed company executives as musicians for the purpose of royalties.
Musical ghostwriting also occurs in popular music. When a record company wants to market an inexperienced young singer as a singer-songwriter, or help a veteran bandleader coping with writer's block or a lack of motivation to finish the next album , an experienced songwriter may be discreetly brought in to help. A ghostwriter providing this type of service may be thanked, without reference to the service provided, in the album credits, or they may be a true 'ghost', with no acknowledgement in the album.
Legal disputes have arisen when musical ghostwriters have tried to claim royalties when an allegedly ghostwritten song becomes a money-making hit. In , Darryl Neudorf was asked to work on a project for Nettwerk Productions involving a newly signed artist in their repertoire named Sarah McLachlan. This recording, the album Touch , resulted in garnering the interest of Arista Records.
She signed a multi-album contract with them and two of the songs that Neudorf worked on with her became commercial hits in Canada. In , Neudorf was invited back to work with McLachlan on her second album, Solace. In , he filed a lawsuit against McLachlan and her label, Nettwerk , alleging that he had made a significant and uncredited contribution to the songwriting on Touch , and alleging that he wasn't paid properly for work done on Solace.
The judge in this suit eventually ruled in McLachlan's favour on the songs; though Neudorf may have contributed to the songwriting, neither regarded each other as joint authors. The judge ruled in Neudorf's favour on the payment issue. In hip hop music , the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip hop stars has led to controversy.