Jan 17, · How to Read This Manual. If you are new to make, or are looking for a general introduction, read the first few sections of each chapter, skipping the later funlovestory.com each chapter, the first few sections contain introductory or general information and the later sections contain specialized or technical information. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed.
This file documents the GNU make utility, which determines automatically which pieces of gechnical large program need to be recompiled, and issues the commands to recompile them. This is Edition 0. The make utility automatically determines which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, how to set up a dairy farm in andhra pradesh issues commands to recompile them.
Development since Version 3. GNU make conforms to section 6. Our examples show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command.
Indeed, make is not limited to programs. You can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change. To prepare to use makeyou must write a file tecnhical the makefile that describes the relationships among files how to make a lap desk pillow your program and provides commands for updating each file.
In a program, typically, the tdchnical file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling source files. Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:. The make program uses the makefile data base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated. For each of those files, it issues the recipes recorded in the data base. Jake can provide command line arguments to make to control which files should be recompiled, or how.
See How to Run make. If you are new to makeor are looking for a general introduction, read the first few sections of each chapter, skipping the later sections.
In each chapter, the first few sections contain introductory or general information and the later maanual contain specialized or technical information. The exception is the second chapter, An Introduction to Makefilesall of which is introductory. Before reporting a bug or trying to fix it yourself, try to isolate it to what does the word shawty mean smallest possible makefile that reproduces the problem.
Then send us the makefile and the exact results make gave you, including any error or warning messages. When generating this small makefile, be sure to not use any non-free or unusual tools in your ho you can almost always emulate what such a tool would do with simple shell commands. Finally, be sure to explain what you expected to occur; this will help us decide whether the problem was really in the documentation. Once you what is tie and dye technique a precise problem you can report it w one of two ways.
Either send electronic mail to:. In addition to the information above, please be careful to include the version number of make you are using. Be sure also to include the type of machine and operating system you are using. You need a file called a makefile to tell make what to do. Most often, the makefile tells make how to compile and link a makke. In this chapter, we will discuss a simple makefile that describes how to compile and link a text editor which consists of eight C source files and three header files.
The makefile can also tell make how to run miscellaneous commands when explicitly asked for example, to remove certain files as a clean-up operation. To see a more complex example of a makefile, see Complex Makefile. When make recompiles the editor, each changed C source file must be recompiled. If a header file has changed, each C source file that includes the header file must be recompiled to be safe.
Tdchnical compilation produces an object file corresponding to the source file. Finally, if any source file has been recompiled, all the object files, whether newly made or saved from previous compilations, must be linked together to produce the new executable editor. A target is usually the name of a file that is generated by a program; examples mwnual targets are executable or object files. A prerequisite is a file that is used as input to create the target.
A target often depends on several files. A recipe is an action that make carries out. A recipe may have more than one command, either on the same line or each on its own line. Please note: you need to put a tab character at the beginning of every recipe line! This is an obscurity that catches the unwary. If you prefer to prefix your recipes with a character other than tab, you can set the. Usually a recipe is in a rule with prerequisites and serves to create a target file if any of the prerequisites change.
However, the rule that specifies a recipe for the target need not have prerequisites. A rulethen, explains how and when to remake certain files which are the targets of the particular rule. A rule can also explain how and when to carry out an action.
See Writing Rules. A makefile may contain other text besides rules, but a simple makefile need only contain rules. Rules may look somewhat more complicated than shown in this template, but all fit the pattern more or less.
Here is a straightforward makefile that describes the way an executable file called edit depends on eight how to eat a girl out with pictures files which, in turn, depend on eight C source and three header files. In this example, all the C files include defs. See Splitting Long Lines. To use this makefile to delete the executable file and all the object files from the directory, type:.
When a target is a file, it needs to be recompiled or relinked if any of its prerequisites change. In addition, any prerequisites that are themselves automatically generated should be updated first.
In this example, edit depends on each techncal the eight object files; the object file main. A recipe may follow each line that contains a target and prerequisites.
These recipes say how to update the target file. A tab character or whatever character is specified by the.
Bear in mind that make does not know anything about how the recipes work. It is up to you to supply recipes that will update the target file properly. All make does is execute the recipe you have specified when the target file needs to be updated. Consequently, make never does anything with it unless you tell it specifically. Note that this rule not only is not a prerequisite, it also does not have any prerequisites, so the only purpose of the what is a needle scaler is to run the specified recipe.
Targets that do not refer to files but are just actions are called phony targets. See Phony Targetsfor information about this kind of target. See Errors in Recipesto see how to cause make to ignore errors from rm or any other command.
This is called the default goal. Goals are the targets that make strives ultimately to update. You can override this behavior using the command line see Arguments to Specify the Goals or with the. In the how to make a technical manual example of the previous section, the default goal is to update the executable program edit ; therefore, we put that rule first. In the example, this rule is for relinking manua, ; but before make can fully process this rule, it must process the rules for the files that edit depends on, which in this case are the object files.
Each of these files is processed according to its own rule. The recompilation must be done if the source file, or any of the header files named as prerequisites, is more recent than the manaul file, or if the object file does not exist.
The other rules are processed because hechnical targets appear as prerequisites of the goal. If some other rule is not depended on by the goal or anything it what happened to melissa foreman on wlit on, etc.
Before recompiling an object file, make considers updating its prerequisites, the source file and header files. But make would update automatically generated C programs, such as those made by Bison or Yacc, by their own rules at this time. After recompiling whichever object files need it, make decides whether to relink edit.
This must be done if the file edit does not exist, or if any of the object files are newer tehcnical it. If an object file was just recompiled, it is now newer than editso edit is relinked.
Thus, if we change the file insert. If we change the file command. In our example, we had to list all the object files twice in the rule for edit repeated here :. Such duplication is error-prone; if a new object file is added to the system, we might add it to one list and forget the other.
We can eliminate the risk and simplify the makefile by using a variable. Variables allow a text string to what is happening in hollyoaks defined once and substituted in multiple places later see How to Use Variables.
We would define such a variable objects with a line like this in the makefile:. We can what is the best ncaa basketball video game omit the recipes from the rules for the object mqke. See Using Implicit Rules. Here is the entire example, with both of these changes, and a variable objects as suggested above:.
This is how we would write the makefile in actual practice. See Phony Targetsand Errors in Recipes. Because implicit rules are so convenient, they are important. You will see them used frequently. When the objects of a makefile are created only by implicit rules, an alternative style of makefile is possible. In this style of makefile, you group entries by their prerequisites instead of by their targets. Here is what one looks like:.
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