The Different Types of Streptococci
Jan 12, · Protect Yourself and Others. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve or elbow, not your hands, if you dont have a tissue. Wash your hands often with soap . The bacteria are spread from person to person by the breathing in droplets produced by an infected person during coughing or sneezing. What are the symptoms of S. pneumoniae infection? Signs and symptoms depend on the part of the body affected. Invasive infection often .
Worried your sore throat may be strep throat? Doctors can do a quick test to see if a sore throat is strep throat. If so, antibiotics can help you feel better faster and prevent spreading it to others. Viruses are the most common cause of a sore throat. However, strep throat is an infection in the throat and tonsils caused by bacteria called group A Streptococcus group A strep.
Group A strep live in the nose and throat and can easily spread to other people. It is important to know that some infected people do not have symptoms or seem sick. People who are infected spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing, which creates small respiratory droplets that contain the bacteria.
Experts do not believe pets or household items, like toys, spread these bacteria. In general, strep throat is a mild infection, but it can be very painful. The most common symptoms of strep throat include:. Other symptoms may include a headache, stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting especially in children. Someone with strep throat may also have a rash known as scarlet fever also called scarlatina.
A sore throat that starts quickly, pain with swallowing, and fever are some of the common signs and symptoms of strep throat. Anyone can get strep throat, but there are some factors that can increase the risk of getting this common infection. Strep throat is more common in children than adults. It is most common in children 5 through 15 years old. It is rare in children younger than 3 years old. Adults who are at increased risk for strep throat include:.
Close contact with another person with strep throat is the most common risk factor for illness. For example, if someone has strep throat, it often spreads to other people in their household.
Infectious illnesses tend to spread wherever large groups of people gather together. Crowded conditions can increase the risk of getting a group A strep infection. These settings include:. Only a rapid strep test or throat culture can determine if group A strep is the cause. A doctor cannot tell if someone has strep throat just by looking at his or her throat.
A rapid strep test involves swabbing the throat and running a test on the swab. The test quickly shows if group A strep is causing the illness. If the test is positive, doctors can prescribe antibiotics.
If the test is negative, but a doctor still suspects strep throat, then the doctor can take a throat culture swab. A throat culture takes time to see if group A strep bacteria grow from the swab. While it takes more time, a throat culture sometimes finds infections that the rapid strep test misses.
Culture is important to use in children and teens since they can get rheumatic fever from an untreated strep throat infection. For adults, it is usually not necessary to do a throat culture following a negative rapid strep test. Adults are generally not at risk of getting rheumatic fever following a strep throat infection. Someone with strep throat should start feeling better in just a day or two after starting antibiotics. Call the doctor if you or your child are not feeling better after taking antibiotics for 48 hours.
Doctors treat strep throat with antibiotics. Either penicillin or amoxicillin are recommended as a first choice how to become a yoga instructor in houston texas people who are not allergic to penicillin.
Doctors can use other antibiotics to treat strep throat in people who are allergic to penicillin. They are less likely to spread the bacteria to others and very unlikely to get complications.
If a carrier gets a sore throat illness caused by a virus, the rapid strep test can be positive. In these cases it can be hard to know what is causing the sore throat. If someone keeps getting a sore throat after taking the right antibiotics, they may be a strep carrier and have a viral throat infection. Talk to a doctor if you think you or your child may be how to get streptococcus bacteria strep carrier. Complications can occur after a strep throat infection.
This can happen if the bacteria spread to other parts of the body. Complications can include:. People can get strep throat more than once. Having strep throat does not protect someone from getting it again in the future. While there is no vaccine to prevent strep throat, there are things people can do to protect themselves and others. The best way to keep from getting or spreading group A strep is to wash your hands often. This is especially important after coughing or sneezing and before preparing foods or eating.
To practice good hygiene, you should:. You should also wash glasses, utensils, and plates after someone who is sick uses them. These items are safe for others to use once washed. Take the prescription exactly as the doctor says to. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. The most common symptoms of strep throat include: Sore throat that can start very quickly Pain when swallowing Fever Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus Tiny, red spots petechiae pronounced pi-TEE-kee-eye on the roof of the mouth the soft or hard palate Swollen lymph nodes in the front of the neck Other symptoms may include a headache, stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting especially in children.
The following symptoms suggest a virus is the cause of the illness instead of strep throat: Cough Runny nose Hoarseness changes in your voice that makes it sound breathy, raspy, or strained Conjunctivitis also called pink eye It usually takes two to five days for someone exposed to group A strep to become ill. Children and Certain Adults Are at Increased Risk Anyone can get strep throat, but there are some factors that can increase the risk of getting this common infection.
How to get streptococcus bacteria who are at increased risk for strep throat include: Parents of school-aged children Adults who are often in contact with children Close contact with another person with strep throat is the most common risk factor for illness.
These settings include: Schools Daycare centers Military training facilities. Strep Throat: More Common in Children. Up to 3 in 10 children with a sore throat have strep throat About 1 in 10 adults with a sore throat has strep throat. Top of Page. Protect Yourself and Others People can get strep throat more than once. Wash your hands often to help prevent germs from spreading. Antibiotics Help Prevent Spreading the Infection to Others People with strep throat should stay home from work, school, or daycare until they: No longer have a fever AND Have taken antibiotics for at least 12 hours Take the prescription exactly as the doctor says to.
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Sep 12, · In newborns, group B Streptococcus infection is acquired through direct contact with the bacteria while in the uterus or during birth; thus, the gestational bacterial infection is transmitted from the colonized mother to her newborn. Approximately 50% of colonized mothers will pass the bacteria to their babies during pregnancy and vaginal birth. However, not all babies will be . Streptococcus Bacteria Classification, Shape, Infection & Gram Stain Overview. Streptococcus bacteria is Gram-positive and are generally spherical in shape. They are commonly found in the mucous membrane of the mouth and respiratory tract etc where they have been associated with a number of diseases and infections including sepsis, pneumonia, and pharyngitis. Jan 25, · The rash caused by a toxin made by strep A bacteria usually appears a day or two later, although it can begin before the illness or up to seven days later. Scarlet fever is highly contagious.
Streptococcus bacteria is a genus of coccus , or spherelike, Gram-positive, chained bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacteria LAB group. Individual streptococcus cells may be round or ovoid and all lack the enzyme catylase. Because these cells divide along a single plane, streptococci occur in pairs or in chains. Like many other types of bacteria in the firmicute phylum, streptococcus bacteria stains dark blue or violet when subject to Gram staining due to the composition of its cell wall.
This is what is meant by Gram-positive. As a member of the lactic acid bacteria group, this bacteria is resistant to acidic conditions and thrives on no oxygen or levels of oxygen below the concentration of oxygen in air. Streptococcus bacteria is divided into eighteen alphabetized groups, called Lancefield groups.
American bacteriologist Rebecca Craighill Lancefield developed this method of classifying streptococci in based on the antigens, or antibody producing substances, found in the cell wall of the streptococcus bacteria under examination. Several types of streptococcus do not react to Lancefield grouping, however, and must be classified using hemolysis, which monitors how completely the bacterium breaks down in a blood solution.
Many types of streptococcus can cause disease and infection in humans, while many others are harmless. Group A streptoccus, Group B streptococcus, Viridans streptococcus and S Pneumoniae are the types most commonly of medical concern.
A GAS infection can affect several locations of the body, and are frequently categorized by location. One of the most well known of these is strep throat.
Strep throat affects the pharynx and causes several symptoms, among them severe sore throat, swollen tonsils , nausea, headaches and yellow and white patches in the throat.
GAS can be deadly as the cause of puerperal fever, or sepsis in women after childbirth. Sepsis is when a microbe enters the bloodstream, possibly causing a serious systemic reaction. GAS was also responsible for attacks of scarlet fever which, like puerperal fever, are now controlled through better hygiene and antibiotics. In the skin, GAS can cause impetigo , cellulitis and erysipelas.
GAS infections may also cause pneumonia , meningitis, tonsillitis, septic arthritis and toxic shock syndrome, amongst other diseases. Group B streptococcus bacteria GBS , or S agalactiae, is frequently found in the urogenital tracts and rectums of women of child-bearing age. Complications may arise in women with compromised immune systems, but it is more commonly significant when transmitted to babies during childbirth.
A GBS infection of a newborn can cause meningitis or sepsis, which may lead to death or long term hearing loss. Neonatal meningitis presents differently than adult meningitis, with symptoms of vomiting and fever. For this reason, neonatal meningitis often goes undiagnosed and can be fatal. Streptococcus viridans is often responsible for dental infections and the formation of plaque. This type of bacteria, along with Group C, F, G and particularly D, can cause endocarditis, especially when the valves of the heart are previously damaged.
Endocarditis is the inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is the most common cause of invasive bacterial infection of children and the elderly. It can cause pneumonia, sinusitis and meningitis, amongst other diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae may cause either lobar pneumonia, which affects an entire lung lobe, usually in younger adults, or bronchial pneumonia, which affects the alveoli, tending towards older adults or children.
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